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Cientistas Encontram DNA Extraterrestre em Humanos - Anexo 01


  Um estudo publicado na Nature sobre o DNA da múmia de uma criança morta há mais de 500 anos deu margem a alguma confusão, pois foi divulgado por parte da mídia com expressões bombásticas como : “DNA desconhecido pela ciência”, “genoma completamente desconhecido”, “linhagem de humanos nunca antes vista”, etc. Deste modo, pessoas chegaram até a falar em interferência extraterrestre, e que a criança poderia ser um híbrido de humanos com ETS !!!

  A múmia pertenceu a um subgrupo genético raro de paleo-índios americanos previamente desconhecido, isto é, era desconhecido em modernos nativos americanos. Supõe-se que este grupo chegou ao Peru em torno de 14.300 anos atrás e poucas pessoas carregando estes genes mitocondriais vivem atualmente. O novo haplótipo (e aqui) do DNA da múmia foi chamado pelos pesquisadores de “C1bi”, onde o “i” significa inca. O Dr. Alberto Gómez-Carballa, autor principal do artigo, declarou :

  “A múmia foi encontrada no limite mais ao sul dos territórios ocupados pelos incas.

  É sabido que os incas organizavam peregrinações de mais de 1.300 km para rituais de sacrifício.

  Aqui acrescentamos evidência apoiando a origem inca desta múmia, com um perfil genético que combina bem com a variação existente no núcleo da civilização inca, no Peru.

  Nossos dados também sugerem que a linhagem da múmia está quase extinta nas populações contemporâneas, mas era provavelmente muito freqüente naquela época.”

  Trata-se, portanto de uma variação rara do genoma de índios americanos. Por que pensar logo em alienígenas ?



Identity of the Inca Child Mummy Revealed

DNA shows the young boy sacrificed to the gods was part of a mysterious group of Palaeo-Indians


  He was found frozen and half-covered in soil on the rocky slopes of the highest mountain in the Americas but now the identity of the Inca child mummy has been partially revealed. 

  A team of forensic geneticists and archaeologists has sequenced some of the youngster's DNA using a tiny fragment of lung taken from his mummified body.

  He is said to have belonged to a family that originated far to the north in the Peruvian Andes and was also a member of a rare genetic sub-group of Palaeo-Indians not been previously identified. 

  The perfectly preserved seven-year-old boy was sacrificed by Inca priests 500 years ago to honour their gods in a ritual known as capacocha. 

The mitochondrial DNA examined by the scientists is passed down only through the maternal line of a family and so it suggests the child, his mother, or her ancestors, migrated more than 1,000 miles south through the Andes to what is now Argentina.

  They found the mummy also belonged to a rare genetic sub-group of Palaeo-Indians who had not been previously identified.

  It is thought this group first arose around 14,300 years ago in Peru and few people carrying these mitochondrial genes remain living today. 

  Those that do, live in Peru and Bolivia.

  However, the researchers also found a similar genetic profile, or haplotype, in the remains of an individual from the ancient Wari Empire, which existed in Peru around 1100AD.

  Dr Alberto Gómez-Carballa, a forensic geneticist who was the lead author of the work at the University of Santiago de Compostela in Spain, told MailOnline the mummified child could have been part of a ritual sacrifice pilgrimage.

  He said: 'This mummy was found at the southernmost edge of the territories occupied by the Incas. 

  'It is known that the Incas organized pilgrimages of more than 1300 km for sacrifice rituals. 

  'We here add evidence supporting an Inca origin of this mummy, with a genetic profile that fits well with the variation existing in the core of the Inca civilization, in Peru. 

  'Our data also suggest that the lineage of the mummy is nearly extinct in contemporary populations but it was probably much frequent at that time.'


  The mummified remains of the body were discovered in 1985 by a group of mountaineers at around 17,388ft (5,300 metres) on the southwestern ridge of Cerro Aconcagua mountain in the Argentinean province of Mendoza.

  The boy is thought to have been a victim of a ritual called capacocha, where children of great beauty and health were sacrificed by drugging them and taking them into the mountains to freeze to death.

  The extreme cold and dry conditions on the highest mountain in the Andes, however, caused the body of the youngster to be mummified and preserved.

  His body was excavated by archaeologists and was found to be wrapped in various textiles and surrounded by six statuettes.

  Several similar mummies have been found in other sites around the Andes where the dry atmosphere helps to prevent bacteria from decomposing the bodies.

  By taking a small sample of the preserved lung tissue from the Aconcagua mummy, researchers were able to isolate DNA from tiny organelles found inside the cells called mitochondria.

  Unlike other forms of DNA, which are passed on by both parents to their children, the mitochondrial DNA comes only from the mother's side as it exists in the egg, but not sperm cells. 

  The researchers found the young boy belonged to a unique South American haplotype they named C1bi, where the 'i' stands for Inca.

  By comparing it to a database of more than 28,000 other mitochondrial genomes worldwide they were able to match it to just a small number from South America.

  Most of these tended to be found in the Peruvian Andes, suggesting this was where the haplotype first emerged around 14,300 years ago.

  The Inca was one of the largest civilisations to have emerged in South America before the invasion of the Spanish. 

  At its peak it consisted of around 12 million people and lasted for around 300 years.

  The new findings suggest there was considerable amount of movement of the Inca citizens in the empire and the maternal ancestors of the boy found on Aconcagua had originally lived more than 1,300 miles to the north.

  Writing in the journal Scientific Reports, Dr Gómez-Carballa and his colleagues, added: 'Overall, the results suggest that the profile of the mummy represents a very rare sub-clade that arose 14,300 years ago and could have been more frequent in the past.

  'The haplotype found in the Inca child from the Cerro Aconcagua, interpreted in the light of present-day variation in South America and together with the different archaeological and anthropological findings, supports the existence of demographic movements along the Pacific coastline during the Inca period.'

WHAT DO WE KNOW ABOUT THE INCA CHILD MUMMY?

  The mummified remains of the body were discovered in 1985 by a group of mountaineers at around 17,388ft (5,300 metres) on the southwestern ridge of Cerro Aconcagua mountain in the Argentinean province of Mendoza. 

  The boy is thought to have been a victim of a ritual called capacocha, where children of great beauty and health were sacrificed by drugging them and taking them into the mountains to freeze to death.

  The extreme cold and dry conditions on the highest mountain in the Andes, however, caused the body of the youngster to be mummified and preserved.

  His body was excavated by archaeologists and was found to be wrapped in various textiles and surrounded by six statuettes.

  The mitochondrial DNA examined by the scientists is passed down only through the maternal line of a family and so it suggests the child's mother, or her ancestors, migrated south through the Andes to what is now Argentina. 

  They found the mummy also belonged to a rare genetic sub-group of Palaeo-Indians who had not been previously identified.

  It is thought this group first arose around 14,300 years ago in Peru and few people carrying these mitochondrial genes remain living today.

CAPACOCHA: RITUAL OF DEATH 

  Capacocha was a ritual that took place upon the death of an Inca king.

  The local lords were required to select unblemished children representing the ideal of human perfection.

  Children were married and presented with sets of miniature human and llama figurines in gold, silver, copper and shell.

  The male figures have elongated earlobes and a braided headband and the female figurines wore their hair in plaited.

  The children were then returned to their original communities, where they were honoured before being sacrificed to the mountain gods on the Llullaillaco Volcano.

Fonte : Daily Mail, 12/11/2015

Autor : Richard Gray



Geneticists have sequenced the mitochondrial DNA from the mummified remains of a seven-year-old boy who was ritually sacrified 500 years ago (main picture). They obtained the genetic material from the youngster's preserved lungs (inset) and it is now helping to provide clues as to his identity

The mummified remains of the Inca boy were discovered on the slopes of Aconcagua mountain in the Argentinian Andes (illustrated) in 1985 by a group of mountaineers

The body of the seven-year-old boy was preserved by the freezing dry air of the Andes mountains which removed moisture and prevented bacteria from decomposing his body (pictured). He belonged to a family that originated far to the north in the Peruvian Andes and was also a member of a rare sub-group of Palaeo-Indians 

Cerro Aconcagua (pictured) is the tallest mountain outside of Asia and the highest peak in the Andes. Like many mountains in the Andes, it has an extremely dry and cold climate



Veja o resumo do artigo na Nature :

The complete mitogenome of a 500-year-old Inca child mummy

  In 1985, a frozen mummy was found in Cerro Aconcagua (Argentina). Archaeological studies identified the mummy as a seven-year-old Inca sacrifice victim who lived >500 years ago, at the time of the expansion of the Inca Empire towards the southern cone. The sequence of its entire mitogenome was obtained. After querying a large worldwide database of mitogenomes (>28,000) we found that the Inca haplotype belonged to a branch of haplogroup C1b (C1bi) that has not yet been identified in modern Native Americans. The expansion of C1b into the Americas, as estimated using 203 C1b mitogenomes, dates to the initial Paleoindian settlements (~18.3 thousand years ago [kya]); however, its internal variation differs between Mesoamerica and South America. By querying large databases of control region haplotypes (>150,000), we found only a few C1bi members in Peru and Bolivia (e.g. Aymaras), including one haplotype retrieved from ancient DNA of an individual belonging to the Wari Empire (Peruvian Andes). Overall, the results suggest that the profile of the mummy represents a very rare sub-clade that arose 14.3 (5–23.6) kya and could have been more frequent in the past. A Peruvian Inca origin for present-day C1bi haplotypes would satisfy both the genetic and paleo-anthropological findings.

Fonte : Nature Scientific Reports 5, Article number: 16462 (2015)

Autor : Alberto Gómez-Carballa,...

Referência : doi:10.1038/srep16462



Sobre os haplogrupos C1b :

Fonte : Análise da dispersão das populações nativas americanas: uma abordagem genético-fisiográfica

Autor : Tatiana Ferreira de Almeida

Referência : Dissertação de Mestrado - USP - 2011

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